Escaping Issues

I have some questions about escaping.These examples are the things which I couldnt do the true.

Must I escape variables, if it is, how can I do it?

For example: global $redux_demo;

in this code:

Is it true escaping?

Functions start with the, need escaping or not?

For example : <?php the_title(); ?>

If I change these functions with the functions start with get, do they need escaping?
Is there any difference about output with functions start the and functions start get?

Why this escaped function doesnt seem?

After escaped this phare, it doesnt seem.What is my mistake in escaping? What is the true form?